The hip joint is a ball and socket joint, in which the upper rounded end (head) of the femur (thigh bone) articulates with the cavity of the acetabulum in the pelvic bone. The smooth surface of the femoral head and acetabulum allows smooth movement of the hip joint. Occasionally, the femoral head and/or acetabulum may have an irregular shape due to overuse, or genetic or developmental abnormalities, and is called femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). This can cause damage to the cartilage and tissues that border the articulating surfaces, resulting in pain and limitation of movement. FAI associated with the femoral head is called Cam impingement. A femoroplasty is a surgical procedure to correct Cam impingement and is indicated when conservative treatments fail to relieve pain.
Femoroplasty is usually performed by a minimally invasive technique called arthroscopy, in which a viewing tube and miniature instruments are inserted into small incisions to reach the operative site. Bony irregularities on the femoral head are cut and removed and the head is then re-shaped. The neck of the femur just below the head may also be re-contoured to facilitate normal movement. Any tissue damage may be additionally repaired during the procedure.
After femoroplasty, you may go home the same day or after a night’s stay in the hospital. You will be advised to use crutches for a period of 3-8 weeks depending on your condition. A brace may be placed to protect the hip while healing. Physical therapy is usually recommended immediately following surgery to improve movement and strength.
Since the procedure is performed arthroscopically complications are rare but may include nerve injury, femoral neck fracture and heterotopic ossification (bone deposition in soft tissue).